My Lombok Ta’jil.

Ta’jil, terlintas di benak setiap orang yang mendengar kata ini adalah jajanan manis untuk berbuka. Jenisnya beragam; dawet, bubur sumsum, kolak dan lain sebagainya. “Berbuka seakan tidak berbuka kalau belum makan tajil”itu lah prinsip keluargaku. Bukan sekedar kebiasaan, tetapi Ta’jil adalah sebuah tradisi. Sayang sekali, hari ini dan untuk seminggu kedepan aku harus berbuka puasa hanya ditemani kakak sepupuku yang jarang di rumah, kedua orangtuaku sedang pergi untuk mengunjungi kakakku yang sibuk koas di salah satu rumah sakit di Malang. Jadi, aku putuskan malam ini akan menginap di rumah salah satu sahabatku, Cika. Continue reading
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The House of Hanoverians

Queen Anne, despite so many births, died without leaving an heir, a new family of monarchs now took over the throne – the Hanoverians, from north Germany.
Parliament, seeking to ensure a Protestant line of succession to oppose the claim of the Catholic James Edward Stuart, made George third in line after Queen Anne and his mother, Sophia of Hanover (granddaughter of James 1) Continue reading

The Stuarts

The Stuarts
Union of Scottish and English Crowns
The Stuarts were the first kings of the United Kingdom.
Scotland provided England with a new line of kings, the Stuarts. They were to bring disaster to the nation for, coming from Scotland where royal power had not been curbed by Parliament, they had no understanding of the more democratic ways that had developed in England.
James 1James I 1603 – 1625
  • Great-great-grandson of Henry VII
  • Born: 19 June1566 at Edinburgh Castle, Scotland
  • Parents: Mary, Queen of Scots, and Henry Stewart, Lord Darnley
  • Ascended to the throne: 24 March 1603 aged 36 years
  • Crowned: 25 July 1603 at Westminster Abbey, also as James VI of Scotland at Stirling Castle
  • Married: Anne, Daughter of Frederick II of Denmark and Norway
  • Died: 27 March 1625 at Theobalds Park, Hertfordshire, aged 58 years
  • Succeeded by: his son Charles
King of England from 1603 and Scotland (as James VI) from 1567.
When James became King of England, he was already a king – King James VI of Scotland. He was the first monarch to rule both countries and the first to call himself ‘King of Great Britain‘. However it was not until 1707 that an act of Parliament formally brought the two countries together.
James was the son of Mary, Queen of Scots. He had been King of Scotland for twenty-nine years when he acceded to the English throne.
In 1605 the Gunpowder Plot was hatched: Guy Fawkes and his friends, Catholics, tried to blow up the Houses of Parliament, but were captured before they could do so.
Charles I 1625 – 1649
  • Born: 19 November 1600 at Dunfermline Palace, Scotland
  • Parents: James I (VI of Scots) and Anne of Denmark
  • Crowned: 2 February 1626 at Westminster Abbey
  • Married: Henrietta Maria, Daughter of Henri IV of France
  • Died: 30 January 1649 at Whitehall, London (executed), aged 48 years
  • Buried at: Windsor
  • Succeeded by: his son Charles II
Charles was born in Dunfermline, Scotland, and became heir to the throne on the death of his elder brother Henry in 1612.
King of Great Britain and Ireland from 1625,
Fought against the Parliament leading to civil war.
Was executed as a result on 30 January 1649.
The English Civil War (1642 – 51)
The war began in 1642 when, after seeing his rights as king slashed by Parliament, Charles miscalculated by swarming into the Palace of Westminster with several hundred soldiers to arrest five Members of Parliament and a peer he accused of treason. They all escaped, but London was scandalized and the king was forced to flee the city.
The war between the Roundheads (supporters of parliament) and the Cavaliers (supporters of the King) began.
The Civil War led to the trial and execution of Charles I, the exile of his son Charles II, and the replacement of the English monarchy with first the Commonwealth of England (1649–1653) and then with a Protectorate (1653–1659), under the personal rule of Oliver Cromwell, the Lord Protector.
England became a Republic for eleven years from 1649 – 1660.
At first England was ruled by Parliamentbut in 1653, Oliver Cromwell, commander of the army, became Lord Protector of England. He held his post until his death in 1658 (when his son briefly took over). Cromwell did not want to be king and refused the crown when it was offered to him.
The Commonwealth – declared 19 May 1649
  • Oliver Cromwell (1653-58)
  • Richard Cromwell (1658-59)
The Stuarts line Restored (The Restoration)
Charles II 1660 – 1685
    • Born: 29 May 1630 at St. James Palace
    • Parents: Charles I and Henrietta Maria
    • Crowned: 23 April 1661 at Westminster Abbey, and at Scone as King of Scots, 1 January 1651, aged 20
    • Married: Catherine of Braganza
    • Died: 6 February 1685 at Whitehall Palace, London, aged 54 years
    • Buried at: Westminster
    • Succeeded by: his brother James II
He was crowned King of Scotland in 1651. When Richard Cromwell lost the confidence of Parliament and abdicated, Charles returned to London in time for his thirtieth birthday and to rule Great Britain (Scotland, England and Wales).
Charles saw London recover from the Plague (1665) and Great Fire (1666). Many new buildings were built at this time. St. Paul’s Cathedralwas built by Sir Christopher Wren and also many churches still to be seen today.
The Great Fire of London
London was a busy city in 1666. It was very crowded. The streets were narrow and dusty. The houses were made of wood and very close together. Inside their homes, people used candles for light and cooked on open fires. A fire could easily get out of control. In those days there were no fire engines or firemen to stop a fire from spreading.
The fire began on Sunday evening on the 2nd of September. It started in Pudding Lane in the shop of the king’s baker, Thomas Farrinor. When Thomas went to bed, he did not put out the fire that heated his oven. Sparks from the oven fell onto some dry flour sacks and they caught fire. The flames spread through the house, down Pudding Lane and into the nearby streets.
Soon London was filled with smoke. The sky was red with huge flames from the fire. By Monday, 300 houses had burned down.
Everybody was in a panic. People loaded their things onto carts and tried to leave town. Others tried to get away on boats on the river. Some people buried their things in the garden, hoping to save them from the fire.
The fire still spread, helped by a strong wind from the east. London Bridge and St Paul’s Cathedral were both burnt. On Tuesday, King Charles II ordered that houses and shops be pulled down to stop the fire from spreading. By Wednesday, they had the fire under control. But by then, 100,000 people were homeless.
James II 1685 – 1688
  • Younger brother of Charles II
  • Born: 14 October 1633 at St. James Palace
  • Parents: Charles I and Henrietta Maria
  • Crowned: 23 April 1685 at Westminster Abbey
  • Married: (1) Anne Hyde, (2) Mary, Daughter of Duke of Modena
  • Succeeded by: his daughter Mary and son-in-law William of Orange
King of England and Scotland (as James VII) from 1685.
James was 15 when his father was executed. He escaped to France in 1648, disguised as a girl.
As his brother, Charles II, had no children James succeeded him.
Whilst king, James tried to force people to follow his Roman Catholic faith. He was very unpopular because of his persecution of the Protestants, and he was hated by the people.
He was forced to give up the crown in the Glorious Revolution of 1688.
Parliament asked William of Orange, who was married to James’ daughter Mary, to take the throne. She was a Protestant.
William III 1688 – 1702 and Queen Mary II 1688 – 1694
Mary was daughter of James II. Married William (Dutch).
Born: William The Hague, Netherlands;
Mary: St James Palace, London
Parents: William: William II of Orange and Mary Stuart;
Mary: James II and Anne Hyde
Crowned: 11 April 1689 at Westminster Abbey, when William was 38 and Mary was 26
Married: William married Mary, daughter of James II
Died: 8 March 1702 at Kensington Palace (William), aged 51 years
Mary died 1694,
Buried at: Westminster (both)
Succeeded by: Mary’s sister Anne
Mary, daughter of James II and her Dutch husband were invited to be King and Queen following James abdication.
King of Great Britain and Ireland from 1688, the son of William II of Orange and Mary, daughter of Charles I. He was offered the English crown by the parliamentary opposition to James II. He invaded England in 1688 and in 1689 became joint sovereign with his wife, Mary II.
Queen Anne 1702 – 1714
  • Sister of Mary II
  • Second daughter of James II
  • Born: February 6, 1665 at St. James Palace, London image: English Flag
  • Parents: James II and Anne Hyde
  • Ascended to the throne: March 8, 1702 aged 37 years
  • Crowned: April 23, 1702 at Westminster Abbey
  • Married: George, son of Frederick III of Denmark
  • Children: Eighteen, including miscarriages and still-born, of whom only one William survived to age of 12
  • Died: August 1, 1714 at Kensington Palace , aged 49 years
  • Buried at: Westminster
  • Succeeded by: her 3rd cousin George of Hanover
Queen of Great Britain and Ireland 1702–14.
Her nickname was Brandy Nan because of her alleged taste for fine French brandy. She was also known as Mrs Bull and Mrs Morely.
All of her 18 children died.
Last Stuart sovereign.

The Tudors

Five hundred years ago the world was a very different place. We were only just realizing that America existed and we had no idea about Australia. England (including the Principality of Wales) and Scotland were separate kingdoms, each with their own royal family. 

King Henry VII 1485 – 1509
  • Great-great-great-grandson of Edward III
  • Born: January 28, 1457 at Pembroke Castle, Wales 
  • Parents: Edmund Tudor, Earl of Richmond, and Margaret Beaufort
  • Ascended to the throne: 22 August 1485 aged 28 years
  • Crowned: 30 October 1485 at Westminster Abbey
  • Married: Elizabeth of York, daughter of Edward IV
  • Children: Three sons and four daughters. Only 4 of whom survived infancy; Arthur, Margaret, Henry and Mary
  • Succeeded by: his son Henry VIII4
 
1471 – Henry aged 14 fled to Brittany, France, when Lancastrian King Henry VI is murdered by Yorkist King Edward IV making Welsh Henry next in line to the throne.
1485 – Henry gained the throne when he defeated and killed Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth. The battle ended the War of the Roses, a dispute between the House of Lancaster and the House of York.
Immediately following his victory at Bosworth he married the Yorkist heiress, Edward IV ‘s daughter, Elizabeth to consolidate the warring families.
Henry VII kept England peaceful and brought riches to the crown and country.
 
 
 
 
 
 
Married: 
(1) Catherine of Aragon 1509-1533 Divorced
(2) Anne Boleyn 1533-1536 Beheaded
(3) Jane Seymour 1536-1537 Died
(4) Anne of Cleves 1540 Divorced
(5) Catherine Howard 1540-1542 Beheaded
(6) Catherine Parr 1543-1547 Survived
 
 
Religion
Henry Vlll brought religious upheaval to England. When he became king, most people belonged to the Catholic Church, which was headed by the Pope, in Rome. In 1534, Henry broke away from the Catholic Church and proclaimed himself head of the Church of England. The land and riches of the church became Henry’s property and he sold off most of this land to dukes, barons and other noblemen.
 
 

Henry had six wives because….
He had the first wife because he was betrothed to her by his father.
He had the second wife because he fell in love and also needed a legitimate male heir.
He had the third wife because he still needed a male heir.
He had the fourth wife because of diplomatic reasons.
He had the fifth wife because he fell in love again.
He had the sixth wife because he was old and sick and needed a companion and nurse who wouldn’t give him too much trouble.
Henry’s main aim was to make sure that the Tudors would keep on ruling England after he died. Henry believed that only a boy could inherit his kingdom. But his son Edward ruled only for six years.

His six wives:
1. Chaterine of Aragon

First she married Arthur, Henry’s older brother. But after six months, he died, and Catherine was engaged to Henry instead.She was 17 and Henry was only 12!They were married when he became King in 1509. She was older and wiser than him and often gave him advice on how to rule.She was a good and faithful wife for over twenty years. She had many children, but only one survived, Mary, who would later become Queen.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2. Anne BoleynHenry fell in love with Anne when she was a servant in the Queens Household in 1522. By 1526 he was trying to get divorced from Catherine so that he could marry her.The head of the Catholic church, the Pope, wouldn’t allow it, so eventually Henry broke away from the church in Rome, and declared himself the head of a new Church of England. He granted himself a divorce.He married Anne in 1533, and later that year she gave birth to a girl, Elizabeth who would grow up to be a strong Queen for England.Henry soon got fed up with Anne, (apparently she was really grumpy!) so he accused her of meeting other men. There is a letter from Anne begging Henry to believe in her innocence but he didn’t and in 1536 she was beheaded. Henry played tennis whilst she had her head chopped off!11 days later Henry married this third wife.
 
 
3. Jane SeymourJane was from an old and noble family. She was gentle and modest and not grumpy like Anne. She gave birth to a son in 1537, Edward, who would become King after his father.Sadly 12 days later she died. It is said that Henry loved Jane the best of all his wives and he waited two years before marrying again

4.Anne of ClevesHenry wanted to make a ‘good’ marriage this time and decided to look all over Europe for a bride. He sent painters to paint any eligible brides so he could see what they looked like.A picture was shown to him of Anne of Cleves and he agreed to marry her without ever having met her!When she arrived in England, Henry was very keen to meet her but she didn’t speak any english and didn’t know who he was. She was rather rude to the fat man that came to see her (Henry) and ignored him.Henry stormed out shouting ‘I like her not!’He is said to have found her repulsively ugly, and called her a horse! He couldn’t break his promise to marry her but it only lasted six months.20 days after his second divorce, Henry married his fifth wife.

 

5.Katherine HowardKatherine was a cousin of Anne Boleyn and was only about 16 when she came to court. No-one knows her actual birthdate, but she was still a teenager when they married. (He was 49!)She was lively, pretty,kind and a bit of a ‘bird brain’ but Henry thought she was perfect.However she was previously, secretly engaged to one man and possibly a second one too. When the King found out he 
chopped both the men’s heads off, followed by Katherine’s in 1542.The following year he married for the last time.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
6.Kathryn ParrKathryn had already been married twice before, but both her husbands had died. She was really in love with Thomas Seymour (Jane Seymour’s brother) but she was too scared to refuse the King (which was probably wise!).Henry was very very fat and ill by now and Kathryn was as much a nurse as a wife. She was a kind woman and was the first wife to bring all three of his children to live together under one roof.When Henry died in 1547, Kathryn quickly married Thomas Seymour (her fourth husband). Sadly he didn’t love her as much as she did him and she was very unhappy. She died in childbirth a year later in 1548
 
 
King Edward VI 1547 – 1553
  • Age 9-15
  • Born: 12 October 1537 at Hampton Court 
  • Parents: Henry VIII and Jane Seymour
  • Ascended to the throne: 28 January 1547 aged 9 years
  • Crowned: 19 February 1547 at Westminster Abbey
  • Married: Never Married
  • Children: None
  • Died: 6 July 1553 at Greenwich Palace
  • Buried at: Westminster
  • Succeeded by: his half sister Mary
Edward reigned under the protection of his uncle, the Duke of Somerset.
Edward was never a healthy King and died aged only 15 years.
 
 
Edward VI became king at the age of nine upon the death of his father, Henry Vlll. He was known as ‘The Boy King’. His mother was Jane Seymour, Henry Vlll’s third wife.
Edward was a sickly child and the country was run by his protectors: firstly, the Duke of Somerset, his mother’s brother, then by the Duke of Northumberland.
Edward enjoyed reading about battles and writing Greek.
Edward died at the age of 16 in 1553.
 
 
 
 
Lady Jane Grey
 
Jane Grey granddaughter of Henry 8th younger sister Mary whose daughter Francis married Henry Grey.
Henry 8th had specified that in the event of Edward dying early that firstly his  daughter Mary should reign and secondly is daughter Elizabeth, but Edward changed it on his deathbed.
While Edward was still alive his ministers persuaded him to make a will naming Lady Jane Grey his successor to the throne. She was a Protestant unlike Edward’s half sister Mary (Henry VIII’s eldest daughter) who was Catholic. The ministers wanted to keep England a Protestant country. Lady Jane Grey ruled for only 9 days before Mary had her arrested and later executed.
 
 
Queen Mary I (Bloody Mary) 1553 – 1558
  • Age 37-42
  • Born: 8 February 1516 at Greenwich Palace 
  • Parents: Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon
  • Ascended to the throne: 19 July 1553 aged 37 years
  • Crowned: 1 October 1553 at Westminster Abbey
  • Married: Philip II of Spain
  • Children: None
  • Died: November 17, 1558 at St James Palace, London, aged 42 years
  • Buried at: Westminster
  • Succeeded by: her half sister Elizabeth
Her nickname was Bloody Mary because of the huge numbers of people she murdered to return England from its Protestant regime back to the Catholic faith.
 
Why is Mary l called Bloody Mary?
She is known as Bloody Mary because of the numbers of people who were executed for being Protestants. Mary burned nearly three hundred Protestants at the stake when they refused to give up their religion.
Mary made herself even more unpopular by marrying Philip of Spain and losing Calais, England’s last possession in France. They had no children.
 
 
 
Queen Elizabeth I 1558 – 1603
  • Age 25-69
  • Born: 7 September 1533 at Greenwich Palace 
  • Parents: Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn
  • Ascended to the throne: 17 November 1558 aged 25 years
  • Crowned: 15 January 1559 at Westminster Abbey
  • Married: Never Married
  • Children: None
  • Died: 24 March 1603 at Richmond Palace, Surrey, aged 69 years
  • Buried at: Westminster
  • Succeeded by: her 3rd cousin James of Scotland
 
 
Elizabeth liked hunting and enjoyed court masques (entertainment of poetry, songs and dancing). She was very well-educated and was fluent in six languages.Elizabeth made England Protestant again and her will was the law.
She did not marry and was known as the Virgin Queen.During her reign, England became enemy of Catholic Spain, and Elizabeth fought against Philip II’s navy.The Tudor period ended with the death of Queen Elizabeth I on 24th March 1603 after 45 years on the throne. She had no husband or children to succeed her.
Golden Age of English History
Elizabeth I’s rule is remembered as the Golden Age of English history. Under her rule, England advanced in such areas as foreign trade, exploration, literature, and the arts.
During Elizabeth’s reign the age of exploration began with explorers such as Francis Drake claiming new lands for England and introducing new materials and foods. The American State, Virginia, is named after her.
During her reign great adventurers discovered many new lands. Fought off the Spanish Armada.
Named James VI of Scotland her heir, uniting the two countries Scotland and England.
 

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