The House of Hanoverians

Queen Anne, despite so many births, died without leaving an heir, a new family of monarchs now took over the throne – the Hanoverians, from north Germany.
Parliament, seeking to ensure a Protestant line of succession to oppose the claim of the Catholic James Edward Stuart, made George third in line after Queen Anne and his mother, Sophia of Hanover (granddaughter of James 1)
King George I 1714 – 1727
        • Age 54-67
        • Parents: Ernst August, Duke of Brunswick and Elector of Hanover, and Sophia Stuart
        • Great-grandson of James I
        • Ascended to the throne: August 1, 1714 aged 54 years
        • Crowned: 20 October 1714 at Westminster Abbey
        • Married: Sophia Dorothea of Celle
        • Children: One son, one daughter, three illegitimate children
        • Died: 11 June 1727 at Osnabruck, aged 67 years
        • Buried at: Leineschlosskirche, Hanover
        • Succeeded by: his son George
King George II 1727 – 1760
  • Age 43 – 76
  • Born: 30 October 1683 at Herrenhausen, Hanover
  • Parents: George I and Sophia Dorothea
  • Ascended to the throne: June 11, 1727 aged 43 years
  • Crowned: 11 October 1727 at Westminster Abbey
  • Married: Caroline, daughter of Margrave of Brandenburg
  • Succeeded by: his grandson George III
King of Great Britain and Ireland from 1727, George preferred Germany to England, but learned to speak English, unlike his father.
Interesting Fact:
The last British monarch to lead troops into battle at the Battle of Dettingen against the French in 1743.
 
King George III 1760 – 1820
  • Grandson of George II
  • Ascended to the throne: October 25, 1760 aged 22 years
  • Crowned: September 22, 1761 at Westminster Abbey
  • Born: 4 June 1738 at Norfolk House, St. James Square, London
  • Parents: Frederick Prince of Wales, and Augusta of Saxe-Gotha
  • Children: Ten sons including George IV and William IV, and six daughters
  • Died: 29 January 1820 at Windsor Castle, aged 81 years
  • Succeeded by: his son George IV
King of Great Britain and Ireland from 1760.
George III was the first Hanoverian monarch to be born in England. Hwas born on 4 June 1738 in London and was the son of Frederick Louis, Prince of Wales, and grandson of George II. He was the first monarch since Queen Anne to put British interests well before those of Hanover.
George III ruled for 50 years and fathered 15 children. He suffered from recurrent fits of madness and after 1810, his son acted as regent.
During his reign:
Britain lost its American colonies but emerged as a leading power in Europe.
Australia was colonised.
His reign was the age of some of the greatest names in English literature – Jane Austen, Byron, Shelley, Keats and Wordsworth.
It was also the time of great statesmen like Pitt and Fox and great captains like Wellington and Nelson.
1769 – Captain James Cook’s first voyage to explore the Pacific.
In 1773 the ‘Boston Tea Party’ was the first sign of the troubles that were to come in America. The American Colonies proclaimed their independence on July 4th 1776.
1775 – James Watt develops the steam engine.
The 1790s saw the French Revolution. The wars with France continued until Napoleon’s defeat at Waterloo in 1815.
In 1801, under the Act of Union Great Britain and Ireland were united into a single nation – the United Kingdom. George was thus the first king of the new nation.
1813 – Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice is published.
King George IV 1820 – 1830
  • Eldest son of George III
  • Parents: George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
  • Born: St James’s Palace, London, on 12 August 1762
  • Crowned: 19 July 1821 at Westminster Abbey
  • Married: Mrs Fitzherbert (English), then Caroline, daughter of Duke of Brunswick
  • Died: 26 June 1830 at Windsor Castle, aged 67 years
  • Buried at: Windsor
  • Succeeded by: his brother William IV
George became prince regent in 1811, while his father was very ill, and king in 1820.
Built Brighton Pavilion.
He died on 26 June 1830. His only child, Princess Charlotte had died in childbirth in 1817, so the crown passed to George’s brother who became William IV.
King William IV 1830 – 1837
        • Age 64-71.
        • Third son of George III.
        • Born: 21 August 1765 at Buckingham House (now Palace)
        • Parents: George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
          Ascended to the throne: June 26, 1830 aged 64 years
        • Crowned: 8 September 1831 at Westminster Abbey
        • Married: Adelaide, daughter of Dukeof Saxe-Meinigen
        • Children: Four none of whom survived infancy, plus several illegitimate by Dorothy Jordan
        • Died: 20 June 1837 at Windsor Castle
        • Buried at: Windsor
        • Succeeded by: his niece Victoria
William IV was king of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 1830.
He became known as the “Sailor King” after joining the navy from just 13 years old.
His reign saw the passing of the Reform Act of 1832.
During his reign England abolished slavery in the colonies in 1833.
William died on 20 June 1837, without surviving children. His niece Victoria succeeded him.
1834 – Fire destroys the Palace of Westminster.
1834 – Poor Law Act is passed, creating workhouses for the poor.
1836 – Births, marriages and deaths must be registered by law
1836 – Dickens publishes Oliver Twist, drawing attention to Britain’s poor
Queen Victoria 1837 – 1901 
  • Age 18-81.
  • Born: 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace
  • Parents: Edward, Duke of Kent (son of George III) and Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
  • Ascended to the throne: June 20, 1837 aged 18 years
  • Crowned: 28 June 1838 at Westminster Abbey
  • Married: Albert, son of Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha
  • Children: Four sons including Edward VII, and five daughters
  • Died: 22 January 1901 at Osbourne, Isle of Wight, aged 81 years, 7 months, and 29 days
  • Buried at: Frogmore, Windsor
  • Succeeded by: her son Edward VII
Victoria was the daughter of Edward, duke of Kent (fourth son of George III) and a niece of George IV and William lV.
She married Albert of Saxe – Coburg Gotha. Ruled during the industrial revolution. The British Empire became powerful, rich and confident. When Victoria died in 1901, after the longest reign in English history, the British Empire and British world power had reached their highest point. She had 9 children, 40 grand-children and 37 great-grandchildren, scattered all over Europe.
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