The Stuarts

The Stuarts
Union of Scottish and English Crowns
The Stuarts were the first kings of the United Kingdom.
Scotland provided England with a new line of kings, the Stuarts. They were to bring disaster to the nation for, coming from Scotland where royal power had not been curbed by Parliament, they had no understanding of the more democratic ways that had developed in England.
James 1James I 1603 – 1625
  • Great-great-grandson of Henry VII
  • Born: 19 June1566 at Edinburgh Castle, Scotland
  • Parents: Mary, Queen of Scots, and Henry Stewart, Lord Darnley
  • Ascended to the throne: 24 March 1603 aged 36 years
  • Crowned: 25 July 1603 at Westminster Abbey, also as James VI of Scotland at Stirling Castle
  • Married: Anne, Daughter of Frederick II of Denmark and Norway
  • Died: 27 March 1625 at Theobalds Park, Hertfordshire, aged 58 years
  • Succeeded by: his son Charles
King of England from 1603 and Scotland (as James VI) from 1567.
When James became King of England, he was already a king – King James VI of Scotland. He was the first monarch to rule both countries and the first to call himself ‘King of Great Britain‘. However it was not until 1707 that an act of Parliament formally brought the two countries together.
James was the son of Mary, Queen of Scots. He had been King of Scotland for twenty-nine years when he acceded to the English throne.
In 1605 the Gunpowder Plot was hatched: Guy Fawkes and his friends, Catholics, tried to blow up the Houses of Parliament, but were captured before they could do so.
Charles I 1625 – 1649
  • Born: 19 November 1600 at Dunfermline Palace, Scotland
  • Parents: James I (VI of Scots) and Anne of Denmark
  • Crowned: 2 February 1626 at Westminster Abbey
  • Married: Henrietta Maria, Daughter of Henri IV of France
  • Died: 30 January 1649 at Whitehall, London (executed), aged 48 years
  • Buried at: Windsor
  • Succeeded by: his son Charles II
Charles was born in Dunfermline, Scotland, and became heir to the throne on the death of his elder brother Henry in 1612.
King of Great Britain and Ireland from 1625,
Fought against the Parliament leading to civil war.
Was executed as a result on 30 January 1649.
The English Civil War (1642 – 51)
The war began in 1642 when, after seeing his rights as king slashed by Parliament, Charles miscalculated by swarming into the Palace of Westminster with several hundred soldiers to arrest five Members of Parliament and a peer he accused of treason. They all escaped, but London was scandalized and the king was forced to flee the city.
The war between the Roundheads (supporters of parliament) and the Cavaliers (supporters of the King) began.
The Civil War led to the trial and execution of Charles I, the exile of his son Charles II, and the replacement of the English monarchy with first the Commonwealth of England (1649–1653) and then with a Protectorate (1653–1659), under the personal rule of Oliver Cromwell, the Lord Protector.
England became a Republic for eleven years from 1649 – 1660.
At first England was ruled by Parliamentbut in 1653, Oliver Cromwell, commander of the army, became Lord Protector of England. He held his post until his death in 1658 (when his son briefly took over). Cromwell did not want to be king and refused the crown when it was offered to him.
The Commonwealth – declared 19 May 1649
  • Oliver Cromwell (1653-58)
  • Richard Cromwell (1658-59)
The Stuarts line Restored (The Restoration)
Charles II 1660 – 1685
    • Born: 29 May 1630 at St. James Palace
    • Parents: Charles I and Henrietta Maria
    • Crowned: 23 April 1661 at Westminster Abbey, and at Scone as King of Scots, 1 January 1651, aged 20
    • Married: Catherine of Braganza
    • Died: 6 February 1685 at Whitehall Palace, London, aged 54 years
    • Buried at: Westminster
    • Succeeded by: his brother James II
He was crowned King of Scotland in 1651. When Richard Cromwell lost the confidence of Parliament and abdicated, Charles returned to London in time for his thirtieth birthday and to rule Great Britain (Scotland, England and Wales).
Charles saw London recover from the Plague (1665) and Great Fire (1666). Many new buildings were built at this time. St. Paul’s Cathedralwas built by Sir Christopher Wren and also many churches still to be seen today.
The Great Fire of London
London was a busy city in 1666. It was very crowded. The streets were narrow and dusty. The houses were made of wood and very close together. Inside their homes, people used candles for light and cooked on open fires. A fire could easily get out of control. In those days there were no fire engines or firemen to stop a fire from spreading.
The fire began on Sunday evening on the 2nd of September. It started in Pudding Lane in the shop of the king’s baker, Thomas Farrinor. When Thomas went to bed, he did not put out the fire that heated his oven. Sparks from the oven fell onto some dry flour sacks and they caught fire. The flames spread through the house, down Pudding Lane and into the nearby streets.
Soon London was filled with smoke. The sky was red with huge flames from the fire. By Monday, 300 houses had burned down.
Everybody was in a panic. People loaded their things onto carts and tried to leave town. Others tried to get away on boats on the river. Some people buried their things in the garden, hoping to save them from the fire.
The fire still spread, helped by a strong wind from the east. London Bridge and St Paul’s Cathedral were both burnt. On Tuesday, King Charles II ordered that houses and shops be pulled down to stop the fire from spreading. By Wednesday, they had the fire under control. But by then, 100,000 people were homeless.
James II 1685 – 1688
  • Younger brother of Charles II
  • Born: 14 October 1633 at St. James Palace
  • Parents: Charles I and Henrietta Maria
  • Crowned: 23 April 1685 at Westminster Abbey
  • Married: (1) Anne Hyde, (2) Mary, Daughter of Duke of Modena
  • Succeeded by: his daughter Mary and son-in-law William of Orange
King of England and Scotland (as James VII) from 1685.
James was 15 when his father was executed. He escaped to France in 1648, disguised as a girl.
As his brother, Charles II, had no children James succeeded him.
Whilst king, James tried to force people to follow his Roman Catholic faith. He was very unpopular because of his persecution of the Protestants, and he was hated by the people.
He was forced to give up the crown in the Glorious Revolution of 1688.
Parliament asked William of Orange, who was married to James’ daughter Mary, to take the throne. She was a Protestant.
William III 1688 – 1702 and Queen Mary II 1688 – 1694
Mary was daughter of James II. Married William (Dutch).
Born: William The Hague, Netherlands;
Mary: St James Palace, London
Parents: William: William II of Orange and Mary Stuart;
Mary: James II and Anne Hyde
Crowned: 11 April 1689 at Westminster Abbey, when William was 38 and Mary was 26
Married: William married Mary, daughter of James II
Died: 8 March 1702 at Kensington Palace (William), aged 51 years
Mary died 1694,
Buried at: Westminster (both)
Succeeded by: Mary’s sister Anne
Mary, daughter of James II and her Dutch husband were invited to be King and Queen following James abdication.
King of Great Britain and Ireland from 1688, the son of William II of Orange and Mary, daughter of Charles I. He was offered the English crown by the parliamentary opposition to James II. He invaded England in 1688 and in 1689 became joint sovereign with his wife, Mary II.
Queen Anne 1702 – 1714
  • Sister of Mary II
  • Second daughter of James II
  • Born: February 6, 1665 at St. James Palace, London image: English Flag
  • Parents: James II and Anne Hyde
  • Ascended to the throne: March 8, 1702 aged 37 years
  • Crowned: April 23, 1702 at Westminster Abbey
  • Married: George, son of Frederick III of Denmark
  • Children: Eighteen, including miscarriages and still-born, of whom only one William survived to age of 12
  • Died: August 1, 1714 at Kensington Palace , aged 49 years
  • Buried at: Westminster
  • Succeeded by: her 3rd cousin George of Hanover
Queen of Great Britain and Ireland 1702–14.
Her nickname was Brandy Nan because of her alleged taste for fine French brandy. She was also known as Mrs Bull and Mrs Morely.
All of her 18 children died.
Last Stuart sovereign.
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